Aviators’ Certificates

Origins

In the UK, the Royal Aero Club (‘RAeC’) began issuing Aviators’ Certificates [known as a ‘ticket’] in 1910, internationally recognised under the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (‘FAI’). For example, the Certificate of Ronald Buck who passed his tests at Windermere on 30 July 1915, having trained on a hydro-aeroplane from the outset, includes the first line: ‘Fédération Aéronautique Internationale’ and the diagonal endorsement at top left: ‘Hydro-aeroplane’, with the RAeC details at the foot which on 7 August 1915 issued Certificate No.1542. The RAeC is still the UK representative on the FAI, albeit pilot licences and ratings have been issued by the Civil Aviation Authority since 1972.

On 28 January 1913, Captain Edward Wakefield accompanied the representatives of the RAeC, Roger Wallace and Harold Perrin, to an Extraordinary Conference of the FAI in Paris. It was decided that ordinary Aviators’ Certificate should be valid for flights over both land and water. Further, that Certificates should be granted in respect of tests made over water, but that such Certificates should not be valid for flights over land. In the case of Aviators who had passed the water tests only, their Certificates would be endorsed accordingly and did not imply qualification for land flights. The holder of a Certificate so endorsed could have it converted into a full Certificate on carrying out the land tests in force. For example, the log book of Donald Macaskie includes details of his tests accomplished at Windermere whilst flying Waterhen, the successor to Waterbird.

The term ‘seaplane’ was coined by Winston Churchill, on 17 July 1913, when he answered a question in House of Commons as First Lord of the Admiralty.

Windermere

The first British Aviator’s Certificate with the RAeC tests on a hydro-aeroplane was achieved by 2nd Lieutenant John Trotter on 12 November 1912, when he was granted ordinary Aviator’s Certificate Number 360. The official RAeC observers for the tests were Reverend Sidney Swann, who like Edward Wakefield and Oscar Gnosspelius was inspired by having attended the Blackpool Aviation Meeting in 1909, and Major Robert Brocklehurst who also built an aeroplane. On 9 September, Trotter was the first pupil of the Lakes Flying Company to receive a flying lesson. He served in France during World War 1 and was promoted Major, albeit his service record does not include aviation.

The cost of tuition was £75 until the Certificate was obtained. For Officers, it was discounted to £52 and 10 shillings upon signing an agreement, and £17 and 10 shillings on finishing tests. Extra practice was £9 for the first hour and £6 thereafter.

The private Seaplane School, was taken over on behalf of the Government, and in May 1916 training operations at Cockshott Point and Hill of Oaks became Royal Naval Air Service Unit Hill of Oaks. Large numbers of probationary Sub-Lieutenants were sent to Windermere for basic instruction, most of whom had either already qualified on landplanes or did so afterwards.  In June 1916, the headquarters of the RNAS at Windermere moved from Cockshott Point to Hill of Oaks, and, with the departure of civilian instructors, the name was changed to RNAS Windermere. RNAS Windermere closed down at the end of June 1917.

Aeroplanes used for instruction were: Waterhen, Lakes MonoplaneBlackburn Improved Type 1P.B. 1Nieuport VI’s, F.B.A.’s, and Short 827’s.

The first 2 holders of UK Certificates endorsed ‘Hydro-aeroplane’ were Windermere-trained. Joseph Bland was granted Aviator’s Certificate No. 614 on 30 August 1913, and Oswald Lancaster was granted No. 765 on 15 April 1914. The first and last pilots who subsequently achieved their Hydro-aeroplane ‘tickets’ at Windermere had in common that they both passed their tests on Waterhen and were sadly killed within a year later, aged respectively 30 and 22.

Subsequent Certificates were:-

21/08/1914 Petchell Murray No. 881. Joined RNAS, Flt Sub-Lt, killed at Central Flying School Upavon 04/11/1914.

11/02/1915 Ralph Lashmar No. 1076. Killed in accident at Isle of Wight 07/09/1916.

30/07/1915 Samuel Sibley* No. 1596.

07/08/1915 Ronald Buck* No. 1542.

24/09/1915 Donald Macaskie* No.1788.

04/10/1915 Harry Slingsby* No. 1818.

04/02/1916 John Coats No. 2404. Joined Royal Flying Corps, Major, Air Force Cross.

04/02/1916 Henry Reid No. 2416. Joined RFC.

12/02/1916 David Robertson* No. 2460. 03/06/1916 gave 1st lesson at RNAS Hill of Oaks.

17/03/1916 Francis MacIntyre No. 2590. Seaplane pilot in RNAS and Royal Air Force.

17/03/1916 Joseph Ridgway No. 2593. Joined RFC, Lt, severely injured 24/03/1917, Distinguished Conduct Medal.

18/03/1916 Noel Lawton* No. 2595. Joined RFC.

06/04/1916 Herman Shaw No. 2702.

06/04/1916 Arthur Salton No. 2703.

14/06/1916 Flt Sub-Lt Paul Gadbois No. 3067. 1st pupil of RNAS Hill of Oaks to be awarded Certificate. Seriously injured in accident at RNAS Calshot 09/07/1916.

21/06/1916 Flt Sub-Lt William Wallace No. 3117. Died following accident at RNAS Calshot 21/07/1916.

23/06/1916 Flt Sub-Lt Victor Bessette No. 3125. Qualified as Curtiss flying boat pilot, RNAS and RAF, Captain, Distinguished Flying Cross.

16/08/1916 Edward Haller No. 3420. Joined RFC, 2nd Lt, killed in action 20/07/1917.

* For more about these pilots, click here

New Regulations Were Introduced to Provide for Hydro-aeroplanes in the Royal Aero Club’s Tests, Effective 1 January 1914

1. Candidates must accomplish the three following tests, each being a separate flight:-

A and B. Two distance flights, consisting of at least 5 kilometres (3 miles 185 yards) each in a closed circuit, without touching the ground or water; the distance to be measured as described below.

C. One altitude flight, during which a height of at least 100 metres (328 feet) above the point of departure must be attained; the descent to be made from that height with the motor cut off. The landing must be made in view of the observers, without restarting the motor.

2. The candidate must be alone in the aircraft during the three tests.

3. Starting from and alighting on the water is only permitted in one of the tests A and B.

4. The course on which the aviator accomplishes tests A and B must be marked out by two posts or buoys situated not more than 500 metres (547 yards) apart.

5. The turns around the posts or buoys must be made alternately to the right and to the left so that the flight will consist of an uninterrupted series of figures of 8.

6. The distance flown shall be reckoned as if in a straight line between the two posts or buoys.

7. The alighting after the two distance flights in tests A and B shall be made:-

(a) By stopping the motor at or before the moment of touching the ground or water [referred to as ‘vol plané’];

(b) By bringing the aircraft to rest not more than 50 metres (164 feet) from a point indicated previously by the candidate.

8. All alightings must be made in a normal manner, and the observers must report any irregularities.

9. Each of the flights must be vouched for in writing by observers appointed by the Royal Aero Club. All tests must be under the control of, and in places agreed to by, the Royal Aero Club.

 

Windermere: birthplace of British naval and civil marine aeroplanes