The Royal Aero Club (‘RAeC’) began issuing Aviators’ Certificates [‘ticket‘ or ‘brevet‘] in 1910, recognised by the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (‘FAI’) of which it was a founder member in 1905.
The RAeC is still the UK representative on the FAI the world air sports federation, albeit pilot licences and ratings have been issued by the Civil Aviation Authority since 1972.
History has come full circle with the successful nomination by the RAeC to the FAI for the award of the Phoenix Diploma for the replica Waterbird.
‘Letter from Capt. E. W. Wakefield, of 21 February 1912, with regard to Hydro-aeroplane Certificates, was read. It was unanimously resolved to grant provisional Certificates in respect of tests carried out on hydro-aeroplanes, such certificates to be subject to confirmation by the FAI, the tests being the same as those required for the present Aviators’ Certificates, subject to modification regarding the alighting on water.’ – Minutes of Executive Committee of the RAeC, 27 February 1912.
‘At the FAI Conference held in Paris on 15 and 16 March 1912, the suggestion of the RAeC that Aviators’ Certificates should be issued in respect of flights made on hydro-aeroplanes under the existing rules was adopted, pending special regulations to be approved at the Vienna Conference in June.’ – Minutes of Executive Committee of the RAeC, 19 March 1912.
On 12 November 1912, the RAeC awarded Windermere pupil John Trotter an Aviator’s Certificate, the first after training and tests had been exclusively on hydro-aeroplanes. – See below under ‘Windermere’.
Wakefield accompanied the representatives of the RAeC, Griffith Brewer and Harold Perrin, to an Extraordinary Conference of the FAI held in Paris on 28 January 1913. ‘The FAI decided that ordinary Aviators’ Certificates should not be valid for flights over both land and water. It was further decided that Certificates should be granted in respect of tests made over the water, but that such Certificates should not be valid for flights over land. In the case, however, of aviators who have passed the water tests only, their Certificates will be endorsed accordingly, and do not imply qualification for land flights. The holder of a Certificate so endorsed can have it converted into a full FAI Aviator’s Certificate, on carrying out the land tests at present in force.’ – Minutes of Executive Committee of the RAeC, 4 February 1913.
An illustration of the above requirements can be seen in the documents of Donald Macaskie. Macaskie’s log book of civilian flying includes details of his tests accomplished at Windermere 4-22 September 1915, whilst flying Waterhen, the successor to Waterbird. The extract from his Aviator’s Certificate below, issued on 24 September 1915 No. 1788, carries at top left the diagonal handwritten endorsement of Hydro-aeroplane, meaning he was only licensed to alight on water. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps and so would need to re-take his tests on land. He did so at RFC Dover aerodrome, as part of his RFC pilot training. By this stage of World War One, the military were conducting flying tests as well as the RAeC. The summary in his log book of military flying below shows that on 22 February 1916 he was awarded what he called a ‘Super Ticket’, as it converted his Certificate so as to qualify him for both water and land.
‘Waterbird provided the vital springboard to establishing a twin centre of technical innovation and flying expertise.’ – Navy Wings
‘Bristol school or Wakefield hydro-aeroplane school to train those pilots that cannot be received at Eastchurch at present.’ – Paper entitled ‘The Development of Naval Aeroplanes and Airships’ by Rear-Admiral (later Admiral Sir) Ernest Troubridge dated 23 January 1912.
The first full British Aviator’s Certificate with the RAeC tests taken on a hydro-aeroplane was achieved at Windermere by 2nd Lieutenant John Trotter on 12 November 1912. Trotter was granted Aviator’s Certificate Number 360; which, being before introduction of the Regulations following the above Paris Conference, entitled him to carry out both water and land flights. The official RAeC observers for the tests were Reverend Sidney Swann and Major Robert Brocklehurst. Swann, like Wakefield and Oscar Gnosspelius, was inspired by having attended the Blackpool Aviation Meeting in 1909, and carried out experiments at Aintree racecourse, Liverpool and at Crosby Ravensworth, near Shap. Brocklehurst also carried out experiments at Eastchurch and Windermere.
The cost of tuition was £75 until the Certificate was obtained. For Officers, it was discounted to £52 and 10 shillings upon signing an agreement, and £17 and 10 shillings on finishing tests. Extra practice was £9 for the first hour and £6 thereafter.
The private Seaplane School was taken over on behalf of the Government, and in May 1916 training at Cockshott and Hill of Oaks became Royal Naval Air Service Unit Hill of Oaks. Large numbers of probationary Sub-Lieutenants were sent to Windermere for basic instruction, most of whom had either already qualified on landplanes or did so afterwards. In June 1916, the headquarters of the RNAS at Windermere moved from Cockshott to Hill of Oaks, and, with the departure of civilian instructors, the name was changed to RNAS Windermere. RNAS Windermere continued operations until the end of June 1917.
The first and second Aviators’ Certificates awarded by the RAeC endorsed ‘Hydro-aeroplane’ were to Windermere-trained pilots. Joseph Bland was granted Aviator’s Certificate No. 614 on 30 August 1913, and Oswald Lancaster No. 765 on 15 April 1914.
Subsequent Certificates, bringing the grand total to 22:-
21/08/1914 Petchell Murray No. 881. Joined RNAS, Flt Sub-Lt. Killed in accident at Central Flying School Upavon 04/11/1914.
11/02/1915 Ralph Lashmar No. 1076. Killed in accident at Isle of Wight 07/09/1916.
30/07/1915 Samuel Sibley* No. 1596.
07/08/1915 Ronald Buck* No. 1542.
04/10/1915 Harry Slingsby* No. 1818.
04/02/1916 John Coats No. 2404. Joined Royal Flying Corps, Maj, Air Force Cross.
04/02/1916 Henry Reid No. 2416. Joined RFC.
12/02/1916 David Robertson* No. 2460. 03/06/1916 gave 1st lesson at RNAS Hill of Oaks.
17/03/1916 Francis MacIntyre No. 2590. Seaplane pilot in RNAS and Royal Air Force.
17/03/1916 Joseph Ridgway No. 2593. Joined RFC, Lt, severely injured 24/03/1917, Distinguished Conduct Medal.
18/03/1916 Noel Lawton* No. 2595. Joined RFC.
02/04/1916 Harry Robinson No. 2694.
06/04/1916 Herman Shaw No. 2702.
06/04/1916 Arthur Salton No. 2703.
14/06/1916 Flt Sub-Lt Paul Gadbois No. 3067. 1st pupil of RNAS Hill of Oaks to be awarded Certificate. Seriously injured in accident at RNAS Calshot 09/07/1916.
21/06/1916 Flt Sub-Lt William Wallace No. 3117. Died following accident at RNAS Calshot 21/07/1916.
23/06/1916 Flt Sub-Lt Victor Bessette No. 3125. Qualified as Curtiss flying boat pilot, RNAS and RAF, Capt, Distinguished Flying Cross.
16/08/1916 Edward Haller No. 3420. Joined RFC, 2nd Lt. Killed in action 03/06/1917.
* For more about these pilots, click here
WITH GROUND SCHOOL ON THE THEORY OF FLIGHT AND AEROPLANE DESIGN, AND OBSERVATION AT THE WORKS OF ENGINES AND INTERIOR CONSTRUCTION OF AEROPLANES, THE SYSTEM FOR THE PRACTICAL TUITION OF WINDERMERE STUDENT PILOTS WAS:-
1. Passenger flights to get used to being in the air.
2. Pupil allowed to hold control lever under instructor’s hand.
3. Pupil given free control of lever.
4. Pupil in pilot’s seat given full control of lever and rudder with instructor behind.
5. Solo taxiing to learn control of engine and art of acceleration.
6. Solo take-off to long ‘straights’.
7. Full practice for Certificate.
8. Certificate tests.
NEW REGULATIONS WERE INTRODUCED TO PROVIDE FOR HYDRO-AEROPLANES IN THE ROYAL AERO CLUB’S TESTS, EFFECTIVE 1 JANUARY 1914:-
1. Candidates must accomplish the three following tests, each being a separate flight:-
A and B. Two distance flights, consisting of at least 5 kilometres (3 miles 185 yards) each in a closed circuit, without touching the ground or water; the distance to be measured as described below.
C. One altitude flight, during which a height of at least 100 metres (328 feet) above the point of departure must be attained; the descent to be made from that height with the motor cut off. The landing must be made in view of the observers, without restarting the motor.
2. The candidate must be alone in the aircraft during the three tests.
3. Starting from and alighting on the water is only permitted in one of the tests A and B.
4. The course on which the aviator accomplishes tests A and B must be marked out by two posts or buoys situated not more than 500 metres (547 yards) apart.
5. The turns around the posts or buoys must be made alternately to the right and to the left so that the flight will consist of an uninterrupted series of figures of 8.
6. The distance flown shall be reckoned as if in a straight line between the two posts or buoys.
7. The alighting after the two distance flights in tests A and B shall be made:
(a) By stopping the motor at or before the moment of touching the ground or water [‘vol plané‘];
(b) By bringing the aircraft to rest not more than 50 metres (164 feet) from a point indicated previously by the candidate.
8. All alightings must be made in a normal manner, and the observers must report any irregularities.
9. Each of the flights must be vouched for in writing by observers appointed by the Royal Aero Club. All tests must be under the control of, and in places agreed to by, the Royal Aero Club.